Diabetes mellitus is a serious chronic disease that occurs as a result of increased blood sugar levels. Many people live with diabetes for many years and do not pay attention to the obvious signs of the disease. Lack of insulin in the body or its ineffective effect can affect the level of sugar rise. It is important to note that diabetes is a disease that has its own varieties. Basically, people with diabetes are divided into 2 types: insulin-dependent (type 1 diabetes) and insulin-independent (type 2). This disease is incurable, and if a patient is diagnosed with this disease, he will follow it for the rest of his life.
Often people suffering from this disease are interested in the issue of diet and food products that can be used in food to normalize and balance the metabolism in the body. Preference should be given to vegetables, fruits, meat and dairy products. Today, doctors believe that a proper diet is the best prevention of diabetes. If you have already been diagnosed with diabetes, then you need to find the right treatment (limit the intake of additional medications) and adhere to a proper diet. The most important thing is not to self-medicate when diagnosing such a disease, but to go for a consultation with an endocrinologist who can tell you all about diabetes, prescribe the necessary treatment, and also tell you how to behave properly and really live with diabetes. Many do not even think about how dangerous this disease is and how many people in the world die due to late diagnosis or due to complications caused by diabetes. In this article, we will consider the basic dietary rules for each type of diabetes, and we will also consider the list of foods that are better to refuse, and which, on the contrary, we prefer.
Diabetes mellitus type 1 diet
The first type of diabetes is more dangerous and serious. When diagnosing this type, a person is given insulin injections, which will need to work for a lifetime. Many do not follow a diet for diabetes and because of that the disease can progress quickly, give complications and cause various diseases.
The main treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes is choosing the right insulin in the required doses. It is very important that the doctor correctly chooses the pharmaceutical preparation, its dose, and also helps to formulate the necessary diet, because it can also be individualized. Proper treatment is necessary for a patient with diabetes. Because if treatment is not started on time, the consequences can be dire. Of course, insulin alone will normalize blood sugar levels, but with a proper diet, the number of injections per day can be reduced. And don't forget that only a doctor should prescribe you treatment and diet, because the first type of diabetes is quite dangerous and it is better not to "play" with it.
There is a special system for calculating the required dose of insulin and calculating the food eaten, such a system is called a "unit of bread". According to this system, one unit of bread is equivalent to 10-15 grams of carbohydrates. Simply put, one unit of bread is, for example, one orange or slice of bread. Doctors typically issue a chart in which the patient can label and monitor the level of bread units.
By the way, it is worth noting that all doctors recommend keeping a diabetic diary, in which it will be necessary to indicate all the food that is eaten during the day, as well as its quantity. This will help the doctor to control your illness and recognize certain nuances. With the first type of diabetes, the main thing is to adhere to certain rules that will not distinguish you from a healthy person in any way. The main thing is that one food premium does not exceed 7 units of bread. It is very important to calculate the dose of insulin and a unit of bread before each meal. And the main thing you should give up are sugary drinks (lemonade, energy drinks, sweet tea, sodas and just sweet juices) because they have an excessive amount of sugar and this can significantly harm the patient’s well-being and dramatically increase sugar levels.
Type 2 diabetes diet
Most often due to obesity or banal overeating a person can develop type 2 diabetes. In this disease the main task is to normalize metabolism and carbohydrates. Remember that diabetes mellitus occurs not only due to the use of large amounts of sugar, but also banal overeating can cause the development of the disease. The body does not produce enough insulin, or the cells simply lose sensitivity to it. Doctors generally recommend proper treatment (tablets), diet and an active lifestyle (daily physical activity is what you need).
Necessary diet for patients with other types of diabetes, and such patients are usually overweight and overweight, the endocrinologist can properly select and prescribe, because this disease is endocrine in nature. When prescribing a diet, the physician should conduct an interview with the patient and clarify his or her gender, body weight, age category, and the presence of physical activity.
The second type of diet is based on weight loss and normalization of metabolism. Often a doctor can calculate the right amount of calories per day. As a rule, the number of calories is calculated from the proportions per 1 kilogram of body - 20 calories for women, and for men - 25. So, if you want, you can independently calculate the required number of calories during the day. If a person is diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, it is very important to keep in mind that the diet will have to be adhered to constantly. That is why it is very important to compose a diet so that it is tasty, healthy and varied. But remember that high-calorie meals and foods that increase blood sugar levels should be completely eliminated.
When planning a diet for diabetes, it is very important to keep in mind that you need to use more foods that contain plant fiber and water. Such products will help satisfy the appetite, and at the same time will not dispose of extra pounds on the body. The main thing is to lose weight, but this must be done carefully enough so that you do not gain even more weight later.
Calories and their allowable amount during the day
People with diabetes can often lose their diet due to severe and severe fasting and food restrictions. It is important to remember that the main thing in the diet is not counting the calories eaten, but simply eating the right food. Under no circumstances should you count calories and try to limit them, because that, on the contrary, can only worsen the disease and worsen the well-being of the patient. Scientists claim that diet mainly influences the development of diabetes mellitus and the appearance of concomitant diseases.
There is a so-called low-carb diet, which will, of course, force you to give up some foods, even the ones you once loved and constantly ate. At the same time you can choose the right food and the diet will be quite tasty and satisfying. With a simple diet, you can control your blood sugar levels, and food can be just as delicious, but also healthy. By the way, in 2012, scientists from Dubai conducted a study on the impact of a low-carbohydrate diet on the condition and well-being of patients, because it turned out that patients who followed this diet were less likely to break down and perfectly control blood sugar levels. , the treatment was less painful and practically without any special restrictions. amount of food.
Fruit that can be eaten with diabetes
In diabetes mellitus, special attention is paid to fruit, because fruit contains a lot of fiber, and concentrates a lot of useful vitamins, trace elements and minerals. Compared to other products, their concentration is several times higher. It should be noted that they mainly contain fructose and sucrose, but there is practically no glucose.
If we fully compare all the possible fruits, then only a few of them can be distinguished, because only a certain fruit gives any value to the body. Also, it is worth noting that it is not recommended to eat all fruits, and some fruits, on the contrary, are contraindicated for diabetics.
Among the fruits recommended for diabetics are: grapefruit, lemon, orange, apple, apricot, peach, pear, pomegranate, various dried fruits (it is recommended to use dried apricots, prunes, dried apples), among the berries can be highlighted -cherries, blueberries, gooseberries, currants, blackberries. For example, watermelons and melons should be eaten in moderation because they contain more carbohydrate components. As you have already understood, it is necessary to eat sour varieties of fruits and berries, which will be more useful and will not suddenly and strongly increase blood sugar levels.
Many diabetics ask the question of allowed food, because their diet is one of the most important factors. We’ll provide you with a list of foods recommended for use, but I’d like to note that this is just a rough list. A more precise diet for diabetes mellitus should be determined only by the treating doctor, because he knows all your pathologies and medical history. So, what foods can you eat:
- vegetable or mushroom soup, okroshka, low-fat fish soups;
- lean meat: chicken, rabbit, veal, beef;
- it is better to take bread from the second grade of flour, either rye or wheat, bread with bran;
- lean fish, but you can only use cooked or baked, fried fish should be removed from the diet. Canned food can be eaten, but it is important to note that they must be in their own juice, as other types of canned food are prohibited;
- of cereals, preference should be given to porridge of wheat, barley, buckwheat, oats and pearl barley;
- eggs can also be consumed, but not more than 2 eggs per week, and only protein is better, but it is better to limit the amount of yolk;
- non-fat dairy products: fresh cheese, milk, yoghurts, as well as types of hard cheese with a low fat content;
- fruits and berries should be preferred to unsweetened varieties (apples, kiwis, grapefruit);
- can be eaten with compote, jellies, and even sweets, but it is very important that they are based on sorbitol or saccharin;
- Cucumber, pumpkin, tomato, pumpkin, lettuce, cabbage and eggplant are the vegetables that are preferred. It is very good to use these vegetables raw (for example, in a salad);
- potatoes can be eaten in moderation and it is very important to soak them in water before cooking, because when soaked it releases starch which is harmful to diabetes and can increase sugar;
- herbal teas, sour berry juice, stew.
As you can see, the list of allowed foods is quite large and the main thing is to easily adjust to a proper diet and eat more vegetables and fruits. A diet for diabetes can be quite tasty, the main thing is to understand that your health and well-being depend on it.
There are certain foods that are contraindicated and forbidden to diabetics because they can significantly increase blood sugar. After all, it is the diet that affects the sugar level. What foods are contraindicated and which products are better to refuse:
- fatty meat soup;
- whole grain bread;
- fatty meat, it is better to give up pork, lamb, duck and goose meat. It is also necessary to exclude from your diet types of smoked meat, sausages and lard;
- flour products - pies, buns and various types of cookies. Butter and puff pastry, as well as products made from them, are strictly forbidden;
- it is worth giving up coffee and any coffee beverages;
- fatty fish, salted or smoked fish, canned food (if cooked in oil or tomato);
- fried, spicy and fatty foods are completely contraindicated, as they will only increase sugar and can cause the development of any other disease;
- salty cheeses, cottage cheese and only sweet and fatty fresh cheese, butter and cream;
- dairy products with a high percentage of fat;
- legumes (peas, beans), varieties of salted and pickled vegetables;
- from fruits are forbidden: all kinds of grapes, bananas, dates, strawberries, figs;
- jam, sugar, chocolate and various confectionery;
- energy and carbonated drinks;
- juices containing large amounts of glucose (grapes, more fruit), as well as sugar-based lemonade;
- of cereals, you need to forget about white rice, semolina, as well as all kinds of pasta.
Properly chosen diet is very important for those people who suffer from diabetes. Diet during diabetes is simply necessary, and restricting certain foods can greatly facilitate a patient’s life. So, everything is in your hands, keep in mind that adhering to a certain diet will make treatment much easier.
It is very important to remember that when diagnosing diabetes, proper treatment and nutrition are paramount. For some reason, many forget about diet and assume that pills prescribed by a doctor or insulin normalize sugar, and this is not completely wrong, because frequent drops in sugar can cause the development of other more serious ailments. This disease often negatively affects vision, heart and joints. With diabetes, many live happily ever after, but in a way you have to limit yourself.
Proper treatment, diet and a physically active lifestyle are the key to a long and happy life for diabetics. Whatever type of diabetes is diagnosed, treatment is necessary in any case, so the diet must be corrected immediately. Yes, diabetes mellitus is one of the incurable diseases (although scientists have been trying for many years to find a cure for a complete cure), which can cause other diseases, but if you learn to live properly with it, you will live a long and happy life. Remember, quality treatment and nutrition are most important in diabetes.